Git Commit Convention

We are using the following convention for writing git-commit messages. It is based on the one from AngularJS project(doc, commits).

Format of the commit message

<type>: <subject>

<type> is:

  • feat (feature)
  • fix (bug fix)
  • doc (documentation)
  • style (formatting, missing semicolons, ...)
  • refactor
  • test (when adding missing tests)
  • chore (maintain, ex: travis-ci)
  • perf (performance improvement, optimization, ...)

<subject> has the following constraints:

  • use imperative, present tense: "change" not "changed" nor "changes"
  • do not capitalize the first letter
  • no dot(.) at the end

<body> has the following constraints:

  • just as in <subject>, use imperative, present tense
  • includes motivation for the change and contrasts with previous behavior

<footer> is optional and may contain two items:

  • Breaking changes: All breaking changes have to be mentioned in footer with the description of the change, justification and migration notes

  • Referencing issues: Closed bugs should be listed on a separate line in the footer prefixed with "Closes" keyword like this:

    Closes #123, #456


fix: add declarations for operator<<(std::ostream&, expr const&) and operator<<(std::ostream&, context const&) in the kernel

The actual implementation of these two operators is outside of the kernel. They are implemented in the file 'library/printer.cpp'. We declare them in the kernel to prevent the following problem. Suppose there is a file 'foo.cpp' that does not include 'library/printer.h', but contains

expr a;
std::cout << a << "\n";

The compiler does not generate an error message. It silently uses the operator bool() to coerce the expression into a Boolean. This produces counter-intuitive behavior, and may confuse developers.